These figures are often known by their original Greek or Latin names. Shakespeare probably learned about a large number of these devices and their names. In any case, he certainly knew how to craft the kind of speeches that would transport his audience to the world of ancient Rome in the last century BCE. Usage terms Public Domain.
In the Rome of Julius Caesar , skills in public rhetoric give status and power to those who hold public office. Appalled by their fickle behaviour, he bombards them with accusatory questions:.
The Art of Persuasion Hasn’t Changed in 2,000 Years
And do you now put on your best attire? And do you now cull out a holiday? We also see here a sharp contrast between the forceful rhetoric of Murellus and the playful language of the plebeian cobbler who jokes with the tribunes using puns and double meanings. Early on then, Shakespeare establishes rhetoric as the possession of the powerful, and as a means of controlling and influencing the behaviour of the commoners.
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In the following scenes, however, it becomes the means by which a plot against Julius Caesar is hatched, fulfilling a clandestine rather than a public function. Brutus is quick to suspect that Cassius is planning something that will go against his principles:. Into what dangers would you lead me, Cassius, That you would have me seek into myself For that which is not in me? But Cassius draws on a whole range of persuasive tricks to convince Brutus to join the conspiracy. For instance, he cleverly develops a metaphor of himself as a mirror in which Brutus will see his true self reflected.
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He presents a vivid depiction of how he once rescued Caesar when they were swimming in the River Tiber, and emphasises Caesar as the weaker man by comparison with an event from Roman history:. The head of Brutus on a coin commemorating the assassination of Julius Caesar. Even the practicalities of the assassination rely on persuasion: as the appointed day approaches, the conspirator Decius is confident he can persuade Caesar to leave his house 2. It was through rhetoric that Cassius tempted Brutus to join the plot against Caesar, but Brutus then has to convince himself that such an action would be justified.
When to win over the heart.
Although he feels Caesar has committed no specific offence after all, he judiciously refused the crown that was offered him , Brutus decides that the potential for evil is sufficient reason to assassinate him:. Brutus is not just a skilled orator: rhetoric is the means by which he thinks and makes decisions. It defines him. His wife Portia understands this, and, trying to persuade her husband to tell her what is preoccupying him, she adopts a logical, orderly style that she knows he will respond to:. I grant I am a woman, but withal A woman that Lord Brutus took to wife.
At the funeral, rhetoric once more takes on a public face. In fact, the pivotal event of the play is not the death of Caesar, but the funeral orations that follow it. The ability to win over the fickle plebeians who gather in the Forum will determine the events of the rest of the play, and it is Brutus and Antony who address them.
Brutus speaks first, taking this opportunity to explain the reason for his part in the assassination. His honesty seems to have won them over, at least for the moment. He was my friend, faithful and just to me; But Brutus says he was ambitious, And Brutus is an honourable man. When that the poor have cried, Caesar hath wept; Ambition should be made of sterner stuff: Yet Brutus says he was ambitious, And Brutus is an honourable man.
Antony, Brutus and their respective allies must resort to warfare, not words, to resolve their differences. The Rome of Julius Caesar is a world where the power of words is harnessed in order to deal with civic, political and even personal uncertainty. But Shakespeare adds to this sense of an unsettled city with stories of disturbance in the natural world.
While you can do that, be sure to keep the price at least within the realm of reason — too high and this tactic will backfire. They use an exit-intent popup to offer a discount to their customers trying to leave. IKEA asks customers to assemble the products they sell, and have enjoyed amazing success.
Additionally, ask your visitors for feedback on how to make your product or service better. Online service businesses have an advantage: their customers can start using their account immediately. Get the customer to use your service right away to engage this persuasive technique.
When others mimic our behavior, we tend to like them more. Mimicry is an excellent persuasion technique for face-to-face sales, but it can also be used to improve your conversion rate. Amazon lets you to sign into Facebook to see what kinds of products your friends have saved and purchased. When we use humor in our advertising, we are trying to be memorable. We inadvertently apply the availability heuristic.
Where most sites simply drop SEO terms on the page, Shinesty. Shinesty: Humor in marketing makes you memorable. How the heck does this apply to conversion optimization? Because, it also applies to products and services. To utilize the cheerleader effect for persuasion:.
The combination makes a lot of sense eat better and accomplish a goal of being healthier and makes the overall package more attractive. Pro Tip: Make sure the choices are trivial, and preferably lead to the same outcome. For example, share on Facebook or Twitter? Checkout with a credit card or PayPal? They found that adding social sharing buttons to their landing page increased conversions in new visitors, but decreased conversions in return visitors. They believe it was because return visitors are more focused on the goal, so the sharing buttons distracted them rather than helped them make the choice.
If you can, find a way to only display the extra options to new visitors. Related: Check out these click-worthy examples of persuasive copy for online ads. Lying could ruin your rep, as well. They use scarcity brilliantly by alerting visitors when availability is low or certain rooms are in high demand. They even further prod visitors to action by telling them they can always cancel later, a tactic called risk reversal.
If the task is very simple, arousal can continue to improve performance, but it will likely plateau. Neville is the creator of Kopywriting Kourse , an online course that teaches you how to write damn good copy. Notice he also lists the monetary values:. PAS stands for problem , agitation , solution. It works like this:. It all comes down to great copywriting.
Are you suffering from no blog traffic? It all starts by watching our latest video. Notice the bold text. It starts with the problem — no blog traffic. Then, it aggravates the problem — saying the blog might suck. Finally, it ends with a solution — learn effective promotion strategies by watching our latest video. Basecamp uses the classic Problem-Agitation-Solution persuasion technique.
It likely has to do with the consistency bias. We want to appear consistent with how others view us. You can do this using case studies, by tagging people on social media, and through your emails. I can tell by the photo you shared on Instagram. Apple, the titan they are, uses a whole slew of persuasion techniques. We have a tendency to look at and identify faces before anything else.
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Faces can distract our visitors from the copy we worked so hard on. Noah Kagan, creator of SumoMe , uses testimonials a lot. On the landing page for his headline optimizing tool , he uses a testimonial from entrepreneur Brian Harris to increase conversions. Eye-tracking studies show the power of a gaze. This eye-tracking study show how our eyes follow the gaze of another face.
In other words, people like being associated with brands that share a common goal. In order to capitalize on this, start showing your values through your company. Of course, doing this kind of charitable work should be done out of a genuine desire to help, but doing good for the world brings dividends back to you. By December of , eye-wear site Warby Parker claims to have donated one million pairs of glasses prescription glasses to those in need through its Buy One, Give One program.
It seems to be working based on their growth. Warby Parker matches your purchase with a donation. This particular idea is backed by the reciprocity principle. Basically, you disrupt your customers by providing them with an incredible experience. Truly WOWing a customer is a foolproof way to earn their trust and return business. Zappos , a shoe company known for their incredible focus on customer service, frequently surprises their customers with free overnight shipping. While it may not increase their initial conversions and costs them extra, it brings dividends in return customers who will come back to them for life.
Any business that offers free shipping or flat-rate shipping is removing ambiguity.